BY MR. JOSEPH GILLOW.
The deep interest everywhere taken in whatever is connected with our English Martyrs leads me to think that a few notes suggested by Dr. Boardman's recent letters to the Tablet may be acceptable to others than book collectors. The 1603 edition of the engravings of Circiniani's frescoes which he possesses seems to have four plates less than the
original of 1584. The latter was published by Barthol. Grassi, and has thirty-six copper-plate engravings, inclusive of title page, each numbered. No. 14, representing St. George, is the portrait of the donor of the frescoes, George Gilbert, who was admitted into the Society of Jesus on his death-bed in the English College at Rome in 1583. The frescoes were painted by Nic. Circiniani under the superin tendence of Father William Good, S.J., acting, no doubt, under the careful advice of the most qualified English Catholics then resident at Rome.
Though I quite agree with Dr. Boardman that the work is difficult to procure, I should hardly think it is so rare as to call for any inquiry as to the number of copies in this country. My copy of the first edition is a particularly strong impression. The pictures in themselves are very
crude, and the descriptive lettering at foot appears to have been carelessly done. The work does not bear comparison with the neat engravings in Richard Verstegan's Theatrum Crudelitatunt Hareticorum, which has thirty plates, 4to., inclusive of title page, besides much valuable letter-press. This work was first published at Antwerp in Latin in 1587, also in 1588 and 1592, and again in 1604. A French translation which I have not seen, is said (I think erroneously) to have an additional chapter on the cruelties of the English schismatics in the reign of HENRY VIII., and appeared at Anvers, /588, 4t0., and again in 1607, with coloured plates in some copies. The English persecutions are illustrated by twelve plates. The rest refer to Belgium and France. The leading London second-hand bookseller recently quoted seven pounds for the 1592 edition. On the same date I noticed the French translation of 1607 priced at3 los. by another firm.
All Catholic works referring to English history are expensive' and are likely to be more so. Not only is the English demand great, but the competition for them from America has been very keen for some years. The issues of these kind of works were generally small, and they were particularly liable to destruction in this country, indeed, the entire importation was seized in some cases. Another matter which must not be lost sight of is the modern extension of public libraries throughout the country, and that when once a copy finds its way into one of these institutions it is permanently removed from the market. From these considerations I maintain that this class of literature, more especially that relating to martyrology, will in general increase in value. At the same time I would warn book collectors against extravagant prices for works which are suoosed to be excessively rare. Most of the works referred to were printed abroad, and many of those which were not intended for English readers only found their way over here by accident. These, generally speaking, are the ones considered to be of the greatest rarity. Take for instance L'Histoire de la Persecution Presente des Catholiques en Angle/erre, par le Sieur de Marsys, Paris, 1646, 4to. The author of this valuable work was a gentleman attached to the French Embassy at London in the time of Charles I. He was also an eyewitness of most of the events described, and assisted the Duke de Gueldres in his collection of the relics of English Martyrs. It is divided into three parts, the third having a separate title-page which shows it to have been published previously as a distinct work in 1645. This work was unknown to Bishop Challoner, and was first publicly called attention to by the late Mr. Richard Simpson, editor of the Rambler. The copy he referred to found its way into the British Museum, and was generally supposed to be unique in this country. A very fine copy is in my own library, and I have lately heard that another has been acquired at Stonyhurst. I have little doubt that others could be met with in France. Since the destruction of the Jesuit colleges in France, and the breaking up of many of the monastic libraries in Italy, I have noticed that great numbers of their books on English Catholic history have been sent by foreign booksellers to their confreres in England, no doubt attracted by the ready sale and high prices ruling here ; and this, in my opinion, is likely to continue for some time to come
To detail the works which have plates illustrative of our English Martyrology would take up more time than I have
at my disposal, but I will name a few. Chauncy's His/aria aliquot nostri sceculi Martyrum, Moguntim, 1550' 4to., has five curious copper-plate engravings—the epitaph of Sir T.
More ; the captivity and martyrdom of John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester ; the captivity and martyrdom of Sir T. More ; the martyrdom of Reynold Brigitt, &c. ; and the passion of eighteen Carthusians. It was reprinted without the plates,
Burgis, 1583, 8vo. Innocentta et Constantia, Victrix, sivi Commentartolus de Vita, Ratione et Marlyn.° Octodecim Cartusianorum, Colonim, x6o6, Gandavi, 1608, 8vo., Wir
ceburgi, 16o8, with engraved frontispiece of the executions, plate of arms, a curious plate of Friar Tynsbe, Hybernus Cartusianus Londinensis, his conflict with demons, and another engraving of the martyrdom at Ruremond.
• Glorioso Martyrio di sedici sacerdoli . . . . l'anno 1581-2-3, Macerata, 1583, 8vo., neatly printed within a border with ornamental initial letters, and said to have six plates (often wanting) descriptive of the martyrdoms. My copy has a vignette of the Crucifixion on the title page, a full page representation of the dead body of our Lord on our Lady's lap, within an oval border at page 62, and only five plates at the end. It was translated from English into Italian by one of the scholars of the English College at Rome. It also appeared at Milan in 1584, but without the plates. In 1585 it was republished at the same press in Rome with a continuation, under the title, Hist. del Glorioso Mar/inc di diciotto Sacerdote,et un secolare . . . ranno 1577-8, 1581-2-3 . . . . S'e aggiunto al presente ii Mar/inc di cinque altri Sacerdoti Inglesi, martirizati quest, anno 1584. On page 62 is a woodcut of our Lady and Child. I have seen within the last five years the illustrated edition priced at ,42 12S. 6d. Another rare work, which Lowndes cites as selling for as much as seventeen guineas in the beginning of this century, has recently been sold at ,4.3 Jos., minus the portraits. I refer to the Certamen Seraphicum, by Father Angelus Mason, 0.S.F., which should contain portraits of the Franciscan Martyrs Bullaker, Heath, Bell, and Woodcock, and of Father Coleman, who died in prison under sentence of death, besides a very curious engraved title page representing a number of Franciscan Martyrs, the names of Brother Angel and Father John Jenings being under two of the pictures. The works of Matthias Tanner, S.J., a native of Bohemia, realise high figures". His Societas jesu usque ad sanguinis et vitae profusionem =Vans, Prague, 1675, fol., contains a great number of remarkable illustrations, several of which refer to English Jesuits. Dr. Jessop says that perfect copies are scarce through the practice of cutting out the plates for sale separately as edifying pictures for the faithful. My copy, which is exceptionally good, is endorsed " Collegii Societatis Iesu Monachij, 1708." A German translation was published at Prague in 1683, with plates much worn. The original edition now sells at ,4'r r. One of my friends purchased a copy some few years since for .4't I Four years ago I met with another work by the same author priced at Societas Jesu Apostolorum /matrix, Prague, 1694, fol. The plates were also published separately, without date, in 4to., under the title Soc. Jesu usque ad Sudorem et Mortem pro salute proximi laborans. A third work attributed to Tanner has been quoted recently at ten guineas, though I have frequently seen it in private libraries. It is entitled, Brevis Relatio Felicis Agonis, Prague, 1683, 4to. It contains twenty-one biographies of martyrs or confessors of the Society, with eight portraits of unusual merit. My copy has unfortunately only seven. The Life and Death of Mr. Edmund Genings, St. Omer, 2654, 4to., contains eleven curious plates besides an engraved title page. This rare publication (of which there is a copy at Old Hall Green College), sold for sixteen guineas at the Gordonstoun sale, though it can hardly be worth that now. The Certamen Triplex, Antverpiae, 1645, x 2Mo., by Father Ambrose Corbie, S.J., is illustrated with portraits of Fathers T. Holland, R. Corbie, and H. Morse. It was reprinted in 1646, and translated into English in recent times by Turnbull, and published by Dolman with the portraits reproduced. According to Lowndes this little work has sold for as much as nine guineas. In the category of portraits I may also mention A True and Exact Relation of the death of two Catholics in the year 1628, 1630, 8vo., republished with additions by Father C.Morphy,Lond. 1737, fivo. The portraits are those of Father Arrowsmith and Mr. R. Herst. Many works contain single portraits, which it would be too laborious to mention here. The illustrations of modern times are of course not so valuable. Haydock's edition of Challoner's Memoirs, published at Manchester in 1803, contains two good engravings-the martyrdom of Mr. Genings and that of Father Arrowsmith. Law's Edinburgh, 4to., 1878, edition of the same work has twenty illustrations, but the value of the book consists entirely in the editor's learned preface and the index, for all Challoner's foot references are omitted. In other respects Haydock's edition is the best. Cuddon's Complete Modern Martyrology, Lond. 1825, 8vo., embraces Challoner's work with the addition of the martyrs under Henry VIII. and Edward VI., and has passed through
several editions. It is embellished with a number of wretched engravings drawn on wood by W. H. Craig.
Of non-illustrated works containing matter relative to the Martyrs the list is endless, and many of them are equallly
valuable with those I have already mentioned. One of the most useful is the Concertatio, originally compiled and published in 1583, by Father John Gibbons, S.J., and the Rev. John Fenn, and afterwards edited with additions by Dr. Bridgwater in 1588 and 1594. The last edition, a very thick 4to., is undoubtedly rare, and probably is worth five pounds. Cardinal Allen's works are all valuable, and some by Father Persons, S.J. realise from four pounds to seven pounds. The latter, S.J., Anglia Regina, Lugduni, 1593, 8vo., now before me, was published in the previous year under the title Responsio ad Eliz. Reginae Edictum contra Catholicos, and again, Romae 1593, 4to. L'Historia Ecclesiastica della Revoluzion d'Inghllterra, Roma, 1594, by Pollini, a personal friend of Cardinal Allen, has been sold in recent years at ,4'r XIS. 6d., but it has lately decreased in value owing to an importation from Italy. The Illustria Ecclesiae Catholicae Trophoea, Monachii, 1573, 8vo., has lately sold at three guineas. The Historica Relatio Duodecim Martyrum Carthusianorum, by Arnold Havensius, Wirceburgi, 1608, reprinted Bruxellae, 1753, 4t0., is also a valuable work. It is included in Innocentia et Constant& referred to amongst the illustrated books. Harpsfield's Hist. Anglicana Ecclesiastica, Duaci, 1622 fol., ranges from fifty shillings to three pounds. Sanders Dc Origine ac progressu Schismatis Anglicani, Coloniae 1585, 8vo., Romae, 1586, Ingolstadii, x586, ibid. 1587, ibid. 1588, Col. 1590 and 1628, with Ribadeneira's appendix, Col. 1610, &c., generally sells at ten shillings and sixpence. There are several translations into French and Spanish, and two into English. The editions vary considerably from each other. The admirable English translation by Mr. Lewis in 1877, is from the original, to which much was added in subsequent editions. Rishton's diary appeared in the Roman edition in 1586, and the catalogues of martyrs varied from time to time. The same author wrote De Visibile Monachia Ecdesiae, Lovanii 1571, fol., Antverpiae, 1578, Parisiis, x58o, Antv., 158r, Wirceburgi, 1592. The last edition is the best, but all the quotations I have noticed have been under two pounds.
Perhaps one of the most interesting little martyrologies is that written by Dr. Thomas Worthington, president of Douai College. Challoner used this work in his Memoirs, and Law, in his preface to the Edinburgh edition, was unable to give the exact title, or to find any other reference to it. The only copy known to me is a mutilated one belonging to Oscott College, without title and the last leaf. The title I can supply : A Relation of Sixteen Martyrs Glorified in England in Twelve Monthes. With a declaration That English Catholiques sufer for the Catholique Religion, and that the Seminarie Priests agree with the Jesuits. By T. W. Printed at Doway, by the widow of James Boscard, 1601 ; sin. 8vo., no. 95. Forty-five pages are devoted to the martyrdom of the author's relation, John Rigby. He then takes advantage of the martyrdom of Xfer. Wharton and his hostess, Mrs. Hunt, to enter upon a disquisition on the history of the controversy which was then raging between the clergy and the Jesuits, generally known as the Wisbeach and arch-priest controversy. This occupies pp. 46-85, and no doubt it was owing to the introduction of this subject that the book met with disapproval, and that the issue was almost entirely withdrawn or destroyed. Dr. Worthington's appointment as president of Douai College was most distasteful to the clergy, who looked upon him as the nominee of the Jesuits, and this defence of the Society, which he afterwards joined, undoubtedly intensified the feeling against him. Nevertheless it is temperately written, and forms a most valuable part of the history of this unfortunate disagreement and controversy, which I understand will shortly be treated by Mr. Law, of the Signet Library. Page 86 commences with the martyrdom of J. Sprott and T. Hunt, and then follow those of T. Palasor, J. Norton, T. Talbot, R. Nutter, E. Thwing, J. Pibush, R. Filcock, M. Barkworth, Thurs. Hunt, R. Middleton, and Mrs. Line in all sixteen martyrs, though in reality I believe that Dr. Worthington was misinformed with regard to Mrs. Hunt, who, according to Challoner, was reprieved at the last moment, and died a confessor in prison. Wilson's English Martyrologe, 1608, 8vo., is very valuable on account of the catalogue of English Martyrs at the end, and sells at five guineas. It seems to have been reprinted at Douai in 1640, 1671, and 1672. All the catalogues of martyrs are rare. Dr. Worthington's Cat. Martyrum, Duaci, 1612 and 1614, I have never met with on sale. The Catalogus Christi Sacerdotum, Duaci, 1630, is nearly as rare. An earlier work, De Pet secutione Anglicana Libellus : acted. Exemplar Literarum, Romae, 1582, amo., was quoted at only a guinea some three years ago. The Exemplar Literarunz a Quodam Sacerdote Collegii /Mglor. Duaceni, Duaei, 1617, 8vo., realised two guineas a few years since. Camerota's Cat. Quorundam e Soc. jesu, Neapoli, 16o6, a diminutive book of twelve leaves, a nice fit for a vest pocket, realises a sovereign. Bourchier's Franciscan Hist. Ecclesiastica de Martyrio, Ingolstadii, 1583, is well worth a pound. It first appeared at Paris, 1582, 8vo., ibid. 1585 and 1586, and a Dutch translation at Ingolstadt in 1584. The De Illustribus Angliae Scriptoribus by Pitts, edited by Dr. Bishop, Parisiis, 1619, 4to., is indispensable to the historical student. I have only seen one copy on sale within the last ten years, at the ridiculously low price of LI 16s. It is worth more than double that amount. Ribadeneira's Historia Ecclesiastica del Scisma del Regno de Inglaterra, Madrid, 1588, 12M0., in two parts, has been recently sold at nine shillings. Other editions appeared at Valencia and Emberes, 1588,121110. ; a third part at Alcala, 1593 ; Emberes, '594, 18mo., in two parts ; Madrid, 1595, fol., in three parts ; Madrid, 1674, 4to., three parts (a bad copy cost me ten shillings and sixpence a few years ago); Madrid, 1781, 4to. Challoner, in his Memoirs, made great use of the Hi storia Particular de la Persecucion de Inglaterra, Madrid, 1599, by Bishop Yepes. G. R. Rossi's Y Successi dInghilterra dopo la Morte de Adoardo VI., Ferrara, 1560, 4to., was compiled from the papers of the Venetian Ambassador at London, and is a valuable book. It was recently priced at a guinea, though Lowndes records a sale at four guineas. The Ferrara, 1591, 4to. edition, cost me two guineas five years ago.
The Bibliotheca Script. Soc. Jesu, by Ribadeneira, 1602, with the continuation by Alegambe, Antverpiae, 1643, fol. ; and N. Southwell's edition, Romae, 1676, fol., are still of value, notwithstanding the De Backers' learned French work published at Liege, 1853-61, in 7 vols., 8vo., and the 3 vol. folio edition. Wadding's Scriptores Ordinis Minorum, Romae, 165o, fol., is also an indispensable work, and sells at three guineas. Father H. More's Hi storia Missionis Anglicanae, SI., St. Omer, 1660, fol., is the most valuable history treating of the labours of the Jesuits in England, and is exceedingly hard to meet with. Bartoli's Dell' Istoria della Compagni a di Giesu Inghilterra, Roma, 1667, fol., Bologna, 1676, 4to., is also very necessary, and as a rule sells under one pound. The Pope's Brief.' f or Rome's Inquiry after the Death of their Catholiques here in England, during the Times of Warre, Lond., 1643) 4to., is a fitting memorandum with which to close my list. Though proceeding from a hostile press, it is of considerable interest.
The foregoing publications are contemporary with the days of martyrdom. Of the later works I will not speak. I will only add that the recent decree of beatification seems to call for some general reference to original works in which we may read of the lives and sufferings of the martyrs.
Before concluding, however, I should like to add a short notice of the martyr, Blessed Thomas Plumtre, which the writer of the Tablet series of articles on the English Martyrs has apparently overlooked. "Parson Plumtree," as Stowe calls him, was a Marian priest, residing in the north at the time when the northern earls rose in insurrection against the arbitrary conduct of the Government, that is—against the spiritual supremacy which, in the person of the Sovereign, the Government claimed to possess, the seizure of all the church property, the destruction of institutions devoted to the service of God, and the imposition of an " Establishment " subservient to the Government in place of the ancient faith. This occurred in November, 1569, and on the 3oth of the month the insurgents had solemn Mass sung at the restored high-altar in Durham Cathedral in the presence of an immense multitude. The communion tables were removed, and the old altars were again set up in the city, and many other churches in Bishopric. The Protestant service-books were torn up and publicly burned "at the brig-end." In this way things continued in Durham
until the insurrection was suppressed. Everything was then "reformed," and those who had countenanced or taken part in the short revival of religion were severely punished. Amongst the numbers who were put to death was Thomas Plumtre, whose execution took place in the market-place at Durham. He had probably been installed priest at St. Nicholas's church, for there he was buried on January 14th, 1569-70. Thus the Cathedral of Durham and the ancient churches of the city and district were the last in this country that were hallowed by the celebration of Holy Mass within their walls.